Tourmaline, known as the "Rainbow Gemstone," is one of the most vibrant and diverse stones found in the mineral kingdom. Its striking array of colors, combined with its unique physical and metaphysical properties, makes it a prized asset in gem collections and a favorite among crystal enthusiasts worldwide.

This fascinating mineral group comprises a variety of complex boron silicate minerals, differentiated by their chemical composition, which directly influences their color. The range of hues in the Tourmaline spectrum is virtually limitless, spanning from pure black to bluish-black, brown, yellow, green, blue, pink, and even clear. Certain specimens, like the mesmerizing watermelon tourmaline, combine multiple colors in a single crystal, creating beautiful, gradient-like effects that dazzle the eye.

From a scientific standpoint, Tourmaline's formation process is as captivating as its aesthetic appeal. Formed under intense heat and pressure within the Earth's crust, Tourmaline crystals are birthed through a process called "igneous differentiation." This occurs when molten magma slowly cools and hardens over millions of years, leading to the formation of large crystal structures. Tourmaline's unique crystal structure consists of elongated, three-sided prisms, often vertically striated, culminating in a trigonal or hemimorphic termination. These crystals are often found embedded in quartz or feldspar.

Tourmaline possesses several unique physical properties. It exhibits pyroelectricity, generating an electrical charge when heated, and piezoelectricity, generating charge under pressure. These properties were historically used by Dutch sailors to draw ash from their meerschaum pipes, earning tourmaline the nickname "aschentrekker" or "ash puller."

Despite being relatively abundant and found worldwide, high-quality tourmaline crystals are rare and highly coveted. Significant deposits have been discovered in Brazil, Africa, the United States, Sri Lanka, and Afghanistan. The different regions produce specific varieties. For instance, Paraíba tourmalines, known for their intense neon blue or green color, are named after the Brazilian state where they were first discovered.

Tourmaline’s diverse color palette and its distinct pleochroic property, where the crystal appears to change color when viewed from different angles, have made it a popular choice in jewelry. It is durable enough for daily wear, with a hardness of 7-7.5 on the Mohs scale, making it suitable for everything from rings and earrings to pendants and bracelets. Tourmaline gemstones are typically cut to enhance their depth of color and to maximize their pleochroic qualities. This leads to a variety of cuts, from classic round and oval shapes to more unusual, free-form designs.

Beyond its ornamental uses, tourmaline also holds a significant place in the realm of holistic healing and spirituality. Different colors of tourmaline are believed to resonate with different chakras and carry different healing properties. For instance, black tourmaline is renowned for its grounding and protective properties, while green tourmaline is linked to vitality and growth, and pink tourmaline is associated with love and emotional healing.

In conclusion, Tourmaline is a remarkable gemstone group that truly embodies nature's ability to create beauty under pressure. Whether appreciated for its stunning visual appeal, unique scientific properties, spiritual significance, or its use in decorative adornments, Tourmaline remains a marvel of the mineral kingdom, capturing the imagination of all who encounter its vibrant charm.


Tourmaline, a complex borosilicate mineral of varied composition, is one of the most chemically complicated of all minerals. Its structure allows a great number of elements to be incorporated into its lattice, thus producing the wide range of colors for which this gemstone is renowned. The name tourmaline comes from the Sinhalese word "turmali," which was used for colored crystals on the island of Sri Lanka. This term has been westernized to "tourmaline," but the Sinhalese origin of the word hints at the long history of these beautiful gemstones in human culture.

Tourmaline's formation is tied closely to granite and granitic pegmatite, and it's in these rocks that the most gem-quality tourmalines are found. Tourmaline forms under very specific conditions, where elements like boron, silicon, and various metals are present under particular pressure and temperature conditions.

The story of tourmaline's formation starts deep beneath the Earth's surface, where magma cools and solidifies into granite. During the late stages of this cooling process, water-rich magma remnants become concentrated with various elements, including boron. This water-rich magma, known as pegmatite, can solidify to form large crystals of several different types of minerals, including tourmaline.

In the presence of enough heat, pressure, and space, the boron interacts with other elements such as aluminum, iron, magnesium, sodium, lithium, or potassium to form tourmaline. The specific color of the tourmaline depends on which of these elements is most prevalent. For example, iron-rich tourmalines are usually black to bluish-black, while magnesium-rich varieties tend to be brown. Lithium shows the widest range of colors, including green, blue, red, and pink.

Tourmaline is formed as prismatic, vertically striated crystals, often with a rounded, triangular cross-section. These crystals can range from tiny, slender shards to large, well-formed prisms more than a foot in length. It's common for tourmaline crystals to be multi-colored, with different colors in the core and rim of the crystal, or arranged in concentric zones or in a sectorial manner.

The formation of tourmaline, therefore, is a complex and lengthy process that requires very specific geological conditions. It is a testament to the remarkable dynamism of our planet's geology that such a beautiful and varied gemstone can be produced. Each tourmaline crystal tells a story of deep time and geological transformation, as well as a symphony of chemical interactions that result in a stunning array of colors and formations.


Tourmaline, a borosilicate mineral, is unique due to its diversity in color, which can range from black and brown to vibrant pink and striking blues. This range is because of the variance in its chemical formula, which typically includes elements like aluminium, iron, magnesium, sodium, lithium, or potassium. Tourmaline's complex chemistry and its occurrence in diverse geologic settings make its formation and discovery an intricate process.

The primary formation of tourmaline occurs in igneous and metamorphic rocks. This mineral, considered an accessory in these settings, is often found in granite and granite pegmatites and, less frequently, in metamorphic rocks such as schists and marbles. It's also found in hydrothermal veins.

The formation in granite pegmatites is particularly interesting. Pegmatites are a type of intrusive igneous rock that forms from the slow cooling and solidification of magma or lava. The exceptionally slow cooling time allows for large and well-formed crystals to develop. In the case of tourmaline, the chemical-rich 'leftover' liquids and gases at the end stage of crystallization provide the ideal environment for its formation. These conditions give rise to large tourmaline crystals that may be several meters long and have a rich color diversity.

However, tourmaline isn’t just found embedded within vast rock structures. It's also found in sedimentary deposits. Over time, weathering and erosion processes wear down the original igneous or metamorphic rock host, freeing tourmaline crystals. These are then transported by water or wind and deposited in sedimentary layers, often in sand and gravel. This phenomenon has led to rich alluvial deposits of gem-quality tourmaline in regions like Brazil, Madagascar, and parts of Africa.

In the context of discovery and mining, tourmaline's high specific gravity and resistance to weathering make it relatively easy to separate from lighter, less durable materials. Often, mining for tourmaline is done by open pit methods, which involve removing the surface soil or rocks to access the mineral-bearing rocks beneath. This can be performed on a small scale by individual miners, particularly in regions with alluvial deposits, or on a large scale in more commercially viable operations.

In pegmatitic environments, after the initial extraction, the rocks are broken down into smaller pieces, often with the use of machinery or even manual labor. The tourmaline crystals are then handpicked and separated from the rest of the rock. In some cases, they might use a gravity separation process, as tourmaline has a distinct density from most of the surrounding rock material.

For sedimentary deposits, traditional placer mining techniques are often employed. This involves washing the sediment through a series of sieves or screens to separate the heavier tourmaline crystals. The resulting concentrated material is then further refined to extract the valuable gemstones.

Despite the prevalence of tourmaline, fine quality, gem-grade tourmaline is still a rare find. Several factors, including color, clarity, size, and overall quality, determine a tourmaline's value. Hence, the discovery of a significant deposit of high-quality tourmaline can be a major event in the gemstone world.

In conclusion, the formation and discovery of tourmaline involve a complex interplay of geological processes and human activities. Its enduring popularity among gem and mineral enthusiasts speaks not just to its aesthetic appeal, but also to the remarkable journey each crystal undertakes from formation to discovery.


Tourmaline: A Glimpse Through History

Tourmaline, a captivating gem with a rainbow of colors, has an enthralling history intertwined with ancient legends, scientific discovery, and worldwide admiration. Its name, derived from the Sinhalese term "turmali", which was used to describe mixed gems, gives a hint to its varied and vibrant color range. From ancient mystics to modern gemologists, tourmaline has left an indelible mark in the annals of crystal history.

Ancient Lore and Mysticism

The allure of tourmaline dates back centuries. Ancient Egyptians believed that the gem traversed a rainbow on its journey up from the Earth's core, thus absorbing all the rainbow's colors. This belief emerged from the stunning color variations found in tourmaline, from sultry blues to vibrant pinks and verdant greens.

In ancient India, tourmaline was revered and valued not just for its beauty but for its supposed spiritual properties. It was believed to bring insight, enlightenment, and a deeper understanding of oneself and the universe. The gem was frequently used in rituals and as a talisman to bring healing and protection.

The Great Confusion

For many centuries, due to its rich spectrum of colors, tourmaline was often mistaken for other gemstones. In the 1500s, a vibrant green tourmaline was discovered in Brazil. However, it was misidentified as emerald for centuries. Similarly, the deep pink and ruby-red variants of tourmaline, mainly sourced from Sri Lanka, were often thought to be rubies. It wasn't until the 1800s that gemologists developed the tools and understanding to differentiate tourmaline from other gems based on its unique chemical and physical properties.

Scientific Fascination

The 1700s saw tourmaline pique the interest of the scientific community. When heated or rubbed, tourmaline becomes electrically charged. Dutch traders in the Indian Ocean learned of this property when they noticed that heated tourmaline could attract and repel ash or straw. This ability to become electrically charged when heated or stressed is referred to as "pyroelectricity", and the Dutch named the gem "aschentrekker" or "ash attractor" for this reason.

Royal Patronage

As the world became more connected, tourmaline's popularity spread to Europe. One of its most prominent historical admirers was the Empress Dowager Cixi of China, who ruled from 1861 to 1908. She was particularly fond of pink tourmaline, and under her patronage, vast quantities of the gemstone were imported from the mines of California to China.

American Boom

The late 19th and early 20th centuries saw a tourmaline boom in the United States, primarily in California and Maine. Notably, in 1876, gemologist George Kunz sold a green tourmaline gem from Maine to the famous jeweler Tiffany & Co., establishing tourmaline's reputation in the American gem market. California later became a significant source of pink tourmaline, especially for the aforementioned Chinese market.

Modern Day Significance

Today, tourmaline is recognized and sought after worldwide, not only for its beauty but also for its significance in various cultures. It's celebrated as a birthstone for October, symbolizing creativity, love, and compassion. Tourmaline's myriad of colors has each been ascribed different meanings, with black tourmaline believed to offer protection from negative energies and green tourmaline associated with healing and vitality.

In conclusion, tourmaline's journey from the ancient realms of mysticism to the forefront of gemological science showcases its enduring allure and versatility. Its tapestry of colors, woven with tales of confusion, scientific intrigue, and royal passions, ensures that tourmaline's place in history is as vibrant and varied as the gem itself.


Tourmaline: Legends and Lore

As one of the most colorful and varied gemstones, tourmaline boasts a rich array of legends and lore spanning diverse cultures and times. From its spiritual properties in ancient civilizations to its supposed magical capabilities, tourmaline has a fascinating history rooted in mythology and folklore.

Egyptian Legend

A vivid legend from ancient Egypt encapsulates the tourmaline's array of colors. It was believed that as the tourmaline made its way up from the center of the Earth, it passed over a rainbow, thereby absorbing all its colors. This explained the gem's extraordinary range of hues, from black and brown to all colors of the rainbow. Thus, Egyptians often used tourmaline as a talisman, believing that it could provide protection and insight due to its association with the rainbow, a potent symbol of the gods' benevolence.

Indian Lore

In ancient Indian culture, tourmaline was considered a stone of profound wisdom and enlightenment. It was said to aid in understanding oneself and others, thus fostering compassion and empathy. A legend tells that tourmaline comes in different colors because it has traveled along the rainbow, absorbing its hues and, therefore, its positive energy. It was believed to bring healing and strength, especially to the heart and spirit. Healers used tourmaline gemstones to strengthen the body and spirit and inspire creativity.

Brazilian Folklore

In Brazil, where some of the most magnificent tourmaline specimens have been found, the gemstone has long been cherished. Folklore among the indigenous peoples claimed that tourmaline was, in fact, the petrified remnants of the legendary Rainbow Serpent, whose body was turned into tourmaline stone as a consequence of angering the ancient gods. The gem was thus considered a protective talisman, guarding its bearer against all forms of danger.

African Mythology

Some African mythology ties tourmaline to the concept of "Jengu," water spirits that are common in the folklore of the Sawa ethnic groups of Cameroon. These spirits are traditionally depicted as mermaid-like figures and are associated with good health and prosperity. Given the water-like transparency and depth of some blue-green tourmaline, it was believed these stones held captured Jengu and could be used to communicate with the spirit world. Wearing tourmaline would thus bring good health and fortune.

Dutch Trader Tales

Dutch traders were among the first Europeans to bring tourmaline to the continent. They discovered that when the gemstone was heated, it could attract ash and straw. Intrigued by this property, they spun tales around it. One popular story among traders suggested that tourmaline was the embodiment of two inseparable friends, one who attracted (positive charge) and one who repelled (negative charge). This characteristic was so admired that tourmaline was used in Dutch medicine to keep the balance between the mind and the soul.

Chinese Beliefs

The last Empress of China, Empress Dowager Cixi, who reigned from 1861 to 1908, held a great fascination for pink tourmaline. She believed that the vibrant color brought joy, blessings, and enlightenment. Moreover, she associated the gemstone with longevity and eternal youth. Her fondness for tourmaline led to an influx of the gemstone in China, where it was often used to adorn incredible artworks and royal jewelry.

Modern Spiritual Associations

In the modern world, tourmaline continues to be linked with a variety of spiritual beliefs. Black tourmaline is often associated with grounding energies and protection against negativity. Green tourmaline is said to foster a connection with nature and promote healing, while blue tourmaline is linked with peaceful communication and higher awareness. Regardless of color, all tourmalines are thought to help balance the chakras, promoting a sense of harmony and balance.

Tourmaline's legends and lore are as varied and colorful as the gemstone itself. Each culture has woven its tapestry of tales, imbuing this captivating gem with a myriad of meanings, each revealing an aspect of our shared human fascination with the mysteries of nature. Through these narratives, tourmaline's allure transcends its physical beauty, embodying an enduring symbol of humanity's quest for understanding, protection, and spiritual growth.


In the land of the ancients, when Earth was young and mankind was yet a mere whisper of the future, the gods and goddesses of the elements held dominion over the world. Theirs was an ageless dance of creation and destruction, forming a balance that brought forth the splendor of the natural world. Amid this divine orchestra, a tale unfolded, a legend that would span centuries. This is the story of the Rainbow Bridge, the divine pathway that birthed the gem of a thousand colors, the tourmaline.

The story begins in a realm where the elements existed in their purest forms. The earth, fire, water, and air gods lived separately, each in their unique dominion. However, these elemental gods shared a mutual longing to unite their powers, to create something that would symbolize the harmony between them. But there was one problem - no bridge existed to connect their realms. Each lived in isolation, separated by the primal chaos.

On the day of the summer solstice, the gods decided to create a celestial bridge. This bridge would not only connect their realms but also serve as a symbol of their unity and combined strength. The air god, known for his ingenuity, proposed the idea of a Rainbow Bridge. The bridge would span the chasm of chaos, connecting the four corners of the elemental realms. It would be a path of peace, unity, and interconnection.

Each god and goddess bestowed a gift to create this Rainbow Bridge. The goddess of water, with her deep, tranquil blue eyes, provided droplets from the purest spring, each droplet shimmering like a sapphire. The god of fire, with his smoky, blazing red gaze, offered sparks from the fiercest flame, bright as rubies. The goddess of earth, with her calm, emerald-green eyes, granted granules of the richest soil, as green as peridot. Finally, the god of air, with his clear, serene gaze, gifted breezes from the loftiest peaks, as transparent and elusive as diamond.

With the blessings of the four deities, the Rainbow Bridge was forged. It was an awe-inspiring sight, a celestial arc that linked the realms, shimmering with a myriad of colors and emitting an ethereal glow that illuminated the heavens. Its beauty was unparalleled, a testament to the harmony of the elements.

However, the gods desired to leave a piece of the Rainbow Bridge on Earth as a reminder of their unity. With their combined powers, they sent a bolt of divine energy to Earth. Where it struck, it transformed the very heart of the Earth into a gemstone, a fragment of the Rainbow Bridge itself. This gem bore within it the essence of the four elements, with colors as varied as the rainbow. It was the first tourmaline, a symbol of unity, harmony, and the combined power of the elemental gods.

Word of this celestial gem spread across the land. Humanity, young and vibrant, were drawn to its beauty and the powerful aura it radiated. They named the gem "Tourmaline", derived from their ancient word "turmali", meaning "stone with mixed colors". The tourmaline was cherished not only for its captivating beauty but also for its connection to the divine Rainbow Bridge. It was believed to embody the gods' blessings and carried the combined energies of the elemental deities.

The tourmaline was used in sacred rituals, revered as a talisman of protection, and considered a token of unity and harmony. It was believed to imbue its wearer with the strengths of the elements: the grounding and nurturing nature of earth, the passion and creativity of fire, the intuition and emotional clarity of water, and the wisdom and freedom of air.

As the ages passed, the legend of the Rainbow Bridge and its divine gemstone was told and retold. The tourmaline became a part of human culture, its lore intertwined with the fabric of civilizations. Its many colors were believed to represent the diverse aspects of the world, serving as a reminder of the beautiful blend of elements that gave it birth.

In modern times, the tourmaline continues to captivate, its deep connection with the legend of the Rainbow Bridge and the elemental gods remaining alive. The varied hues of the tourmaline are a testament to its legendary origins, each color telling a tale of the ancient elemental deities and their divine dance of creation. The gem stands as a symbol of unity in diversity, a fragment of the celestial Rainbow Bridge on Earth, and a reminder of the harmonious blend of elements that make up our world.

Thus ends the tale of the Rainbow Bridge and the birth of the tourmaline. An ancient legend etched in the annals of time, a colorful tale mirrored in the myriad hues of a gemstone, a reminder of unity, harmony, and the magical blend of elements that make up our universe.


Tourmaline, with its myriad hues and radiant glow, has long fascinated humanity, not merely for its physical beauty, but also for the numerous mystical properties ascribed to it. Each color variation of tourmaline possesses its unique set of purported spiritual qualities, and understanding these can offer a more profound appreciation of this multi-faceted gemstone.

Black Tourmaline: The Protective Shield

Black tourmaline, also known as schorl, is often associated with protection and grounding. It's believed to act as a psychic shield, warding off negative energies, whether they stem from other people, environmental pollutants, or our self-defeating thoughts. Furthermore, it's seen as a powerful grounding stone, enhancing one's connection with the Earth and providing an energetic anchor to the physical world. It has also been associated with promoting a sense of power and self-confidence, aiding individuals in understanding themselves and the world around them.

Blue Tourmaline: The Communicator

Blue tourmaline, also referred to as indicolite, is linked to communication and intuition. It's believed to help its user express thoughts and ideas more clearly and confidently, making it a valuable companion for public speakers, writers, and teachers. Some spiritual practitioners also associate blue tourmaline with increased intuition, higher awareness, and enhanced cognitive abilities, making it an excellent tool for meditation and introspection.

Green Tourmaline: The Healer

Green tourmaline, or verdelite, is often associated with healing, vitality, and physical abundance. It's thought to connect with the heart chakra, promoting emotional healing, compassion, and patience. On a physical level, green tourmaline is seen as promoting vitality and strength, enhancing the bearer's connection with nature and encouraging personal growth.

Red Tourmaline: The Energizer

Red tourmaline, also known as rubellite, is said to be linked with the root chakra, and it's often associated with energizing and revitalizing the body and mind. It is believed to boost courage, strength, and endurance, inspiring passion and love. It's also used to overcome fears and to transform negative energy into positive energy.

Watermelon Tourmaline: The Harmonizer

A unique variant, the watermelon tourmaline, named for its distinctive pink center encased by a green rind, is believed to possess the properties of both pink and green tourmaline. It's said to promote a sense of harmony, balance, and inner peace. It's also associated with understanding, empathy, and love, helping to resolve conflicts and enhance relationships.

Multicolored Tourmaline: The Balancer

Multicolored tourmaline stones, containing two or more colors in a single crystal, are seen as balancing stones. They're believed to carry the combined attributes of the included colors, promoting a balance of energy. They're said to stimulate a cooperative spirit and encourage insight into complex situations, making them useful for problem-solving.

Tourmaline's Universal Mystical Properties

In addition to the unique properties associated with each color, tourmaline as a whole is often associated with aligning the body's energy centers, or chakras. It's considered a "receptive stone," meaning it's soothing, calming, and magnetic, promoting meditation, spirituality, wisdom, and mysticism.

Moreover, tourmaline's pyroelectric properties – the ability to generate an electrical charge when heated or cooled – is also thought to contribute to its mystical attributes. This is believed to amplify its ability to repel negative energies and attract positivity.

Tourmaline's alleged capacity to clear and balance the chakras, repel negativity, attract positivity, and connect the physical and spiritual realms has made it a favored tool for numerous healing and spiritual practices. Crystal healers, spiritual practitioners, and holistic therapists often use it during treatments for its perceived energetic contributions.

In conclusion, tourmaline, in its varied colors, is a treasure trove of mystical properties. Whether you're drawn to the protective black tourmaline, the communicative blue, the healing green, the energizing red, the harmonizing watermelon, or the balancing multicolored variants, this extraordinary gem offers a color and energy that aligns with every spiritual journey.


Tourmaline: A Crystal for Magical Endeavors

Tourmaline, a gemstone of many hues and profound energy, has been celebrated throughout history for its varied mystical attributes. It is treasured by crystal practitioners and magical workers alike, serving as a powerful tool in various forms of enchantments, spells, and spiritual practices. Here, we delve into the different ways one might harness the magical potential of tourmaline.

Setting Protective Boundaries

One of the most common uses of tourmaline, particularly black tourmaline, is in protective spells and rituals. As a guardian stone, black tourmaline is believed to form an energetic shield that deflects negative energies and harmful influences. You might carry a piece of black tourmaline as an amulet or arrange several stones in a protective grid around your home or workspace to safeguard against negativity.

To enhance its protective energy, you could consecrate the tourmaline in a small ritual. Light a black or white candle and hold the tourmaline in your dominant hand, envisioning a protective barrier forming around you. Call upon any protective spirits, deities, or ancestors you work with, asking them to charge the stone with their protective powers. Let the candle burn out naturally to seal the enchantment.

Enhancing Communication and Psychic Abilities

Blue tourmaline, or indicolite, is said to open the throat chakra, enhancing communication, self-expression, and psychic abilities. In magic, this gem can be used in spells aimed at improving communication or promoting clairvoyance. Carry it with you during negotiations or difficult conversations, or meditate with it before performing divination or psychic work.

To perform a communication-enhancing spell, inscribe a symbol or word related to communication on a blue candle. Hold the blue tourmaline and envision your ability to communicate improving. Light the candle and let it burn down naturally. Use the charged tourmaline as a talisman during crucial conversations or when seeking psychic insights.

Promoting Healing and Abundance

Green tourmaline is associated with the heart chakra and is often used in magic aimed at promoting healing, growth, and abundance. Create a crystal grid with green tourmaline and other healing or abundance-attracting stones, focusing on your intention of healing or attracting abundance while setting up the grid. You can also place a piece of green tourmaline in your wallet or money area to attract financial abundance.

For a healing spell, anoint a green candle with a healing oil, such as lavender or eucalyptus. Hold the green tourmaline, focusing on the healing energy flowing into you or the person you're healing. Light the candle and envision the person's body being filled with healing energy. Let the candle burn out, and carry the charged tourmaline as a healing amulet.

Invoking Love and Balance

Pink or watermelon tourmaline is connected to the heart chakra, making it a perfect stone for spells relating to love, compassion, and emotional balance. It can be used to attract love, enhance self-love, or heal emotional wounds. To attract love, carry a pink tourmaline with you and visualize love coming into your life. To promote emotional healing or balance, meditate with a piece of watermelon tourmaline, focusing on harmonizing your emotions.

To enhance its energy, inscribe a symbol of love or balance on a pink candle. Hold the tourmaline and visualize your heart chakra opening and filling with love or harmony. Light the candle and let it burn down, using the charged tourmaline as a love-attracting or balancing talisman.

Balancing Energy Centers

Multi-colored tourmalines can be used to balance and align the chakras. For a chakra balancing spell, place different colored tourmalines on the corresponding chakra points while lying down, and visualize your chakras spinning and aligning.

Tourmaline, in its varied colors and energies, is an extraordinary tool for magical practice. Its protective, communicative, healing, loving, and balancing properties make it versatile and valuable, capable of enhancing a variety of spells and rituals. Remember, the most important aspect of using crystals in magic is your intention. By focusing on your purpose and tuning into the energy of the tourmaline, you can harness the stone's magical potential.




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